Layouts for Blog Page/Post

1. Layouts for Blog Post/Page:

1.1 Add Sidebar Layout for Single Post Layout
Check here and see the post detail with sidebar:
1.2 Add Sidebar Layout for Single Post
Admin -> Appearance -> Customize -> Widget
Here you can drag n drop the available widgets such as blog category, Recent post, Tag to "Single Posts Sidebar"

2. Add Sidebar Layouts for Blog Page

2.1 Drag n drop available widget to sidebar blog page

3. Customize Sidebar for Blog:

Customize > Blog > Archive
Set left/right sidebar and "Publish"